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Conference Close Message from IEC2M Organizing Team
Warmest congratulations on the success of the 1st International Electronic Conference on Metallurgy and Metals (IEC2M). Many thanks for your participation.
All participants of IEC2M are welcome to submit the extended work to the Metals Special Issue "Selected Papers from the 1st International Electronic Conference on Metallurgy and Metals (IEC2M 2021)".
The winners of IEC2M Best Paper Award and Best Poster Award will be announce on 20th March 2021.
Welcome from the Chair
It is my pleasure to invite you to join the 1st International Electronic Conference on Metallurgy and Metals (IEC2M) that will be hosted online at https:sciforum.netconferenceIEC2M
Metallurgy and Metals play a crucial role in current technology and have critical importance in addressing major societal challenges. Among them, process metallurgy (i.e., extracting metals from their ores to make refined alloys), physical metallurgy (i.e., shaping, alloying, heat treatment, joining, corrosion protection, and testing of metals), and critical metals recovery from secondary waste streams are of outstanding importance. IEC2M will present the state-of-the-art of Metallurgy and Metals related to these issues.
IEC2M 2021 will promote and advance the exciting and rapidly changing field of Metallurgy and Metals. Topics of interest include, but are not limited to the following:
2. Powder Metallurgy
3. Corrosion and Protection
4. Biobased and Biodegradable Metals
5. Metal Forming
6. Additive Manufacturing
7. Metal Failure
8. Metal Recycling
IEC2M 2021 will enable you to share and discuss your most recent research findings with the worldwide vibrant community of scientists and engineers in the field.
IEC2M 2021 will make your presentation accessible to hundreds of researchers worldwide, with the active engagement of the audience in question and answer sessions and discussion groups that will take place online.
Submitted abstracts will be reviewed by the conference committee. The authors of accepted contributions will be invited to produce an extended abstract for the conference proceedings along with a slide presentation of their work. Following the conference, outstanding contributions will be invited to be submitted for publication in Metals.
IEC2M 2021 is a new and exciting experience for me that I believe this event will contribute to the dissemination of knowledge despite the situation regarding Covid-19. IEC2M 2021 will contribute to the dissemination of research in an online environment that will maintain the same standards and structure of traditional conferences but will be more inclusive by eliminating the cost and time barriers that prevent participation in physical events.
I hope you will join us and present your work at IEC2M 2021, and be part of this exciting online experience.
Prof. Eric D. van Hullebusch
Université de Paris / Institut de physique du globe de Paris
Associate editor Metals
Chair of the 1st International Electronic Conference on Metallurgy and Metal (IEC2M)
Conference SecretariatMs. Harley Wang
Ms. Lyra Xing
Ms. Sunny He
Ms. Maggie Guo
Ms. Sally Xu
Conference Email Group: [email protected]
Professor Eric D.van Hullebusch
Université de Paris / Institut de physique du globe de Paris
Prof. Eric D. van Hullebusch is an Associate Editor of Metals, an international open access journal publishing papers devoted to the in-depth understanding of the relationship between the structure, properties, or functions of all kinds of metals. Eric van Hullebusch is a Full Professor at Université de Paris and Institut de Physique du Globe de Paris (France). Prof. van Hullebusch’s research mostly focuses on investigating the biogeochemistry of base, precious, and critical metals in engineered ecosystems dedicated to resource recovery (e.g., biohydrometallurgy). He has co-authored more than 230 papers in leading international journals, and he has been involved in editing several monographs published by Springer. See http://www.ipgp.fr/fr/van-hullebusch-eric for more information
Prof. Dr. José Manuel Torralba
Universidad Carlos III de Madrid, Spain
Prof. Dr. Belén Díaz Fernández
University of Vigo, Spain
Prof. Dr. Leszek Adam Dobrzanski
Medical and Dental Engineering Centre for Research, Poland
Prof. Dr. Filippo Berto
Norwegian University of Science and Technology, Norway
Prof. Dr. Andreas Chrysanthou
University of Hertfordshire, UK
Dr. Jae-chun Lee
Korea Institute of Geoscience and Mineral Resources (KIGAM) and Korea University of Science and Technology (KUST), Korea
Dr. Alex Lanzutti
Università degli Studi di Udine, Italy
Prof. Dr. João Pedro Oliveira
Universidade Nova de Lisboa, Portugal
Prof. Dr. Mónica Campos
Universidad Carlos III de Madrid, Spain
Prof. Dr. Alexandre Chagnes
University of Lorraine, France
hydrometallurgy; electrochemistry of lithium–ion batteries; solution chemistry; recycling
Prof. Dr. Nader Asnafi
Örebro University, Sweden
metal forming, metal additive manufacturing, generative design, topology optimization, lightweighting, tools and dies, circular life cycle
Prof. Dr. Francisco J. G. Silva
Polytechnic Institute of Porto, Portugal
wear, hard coatings, materials, manufacturing processes (machining, welding, forming, die-cast injection, plastic moulding), industrial management
Prof. Dr. Elena Gordo
Universidad Carlos III de Madrid, Spain
powder metallurgy; titanium alloys; metal-ceramic composites; surface treatments; additive manufacturing
Prof. Dr. Eric Hug
Normandy University, France
plasticity mechanisms; plasticity modelisation; dislocations and twinning; size effects in metals; corrosion; magnetic and electrical properties; spark plasma sintering; additive manufacturing
Dr. George Pantazopoulos
ELKEME - Hellenic Research Centre for Metals S.A, Greece
failure analysis; fracture analysis; fractography; fracture mechanics; mechanical behavior of materials; metallography; scanning electron microscopy; manufacturing technology; materials processing; machinability; surface engineering; corrosion; tribology; quality assurance; design of experiments
Prof. Dr. David M. Bastidas
The University of Akron, USA
corrosion; inhibition; electrochemistry; materials performance; reinforced concrete structures
Prof. Dr. Martin Leitner
Graz University of Technology, Austria
fatigue design; technological aspects; modern fatigue approaches; fatigue strength of cast aluminum
Dr. Alessandra Varone
University of Rome Tor Vergata, Italy
liquid metals; welding; high temperature materials; steels; sintering; electron microscopy (TEM, SEM); surface analyses (XPS, AES); X-ray diffraction; mechanical spectroscopy
Dr. Srecko Stopic
RWTH Aachen University, Germany
Hydrometallurgy; recycling; nanotechnology; waste water treatment; recycling; materials engineering; environmental protection
IEC2M Live Session
On 25 February 2021, Prof. Dr. Eric D. van Hullebusch chaired the live session of The 1st International Electronic Conference on Metallurgy and Metals.
Prof. Dr. João Pedro Oliveira first described recent technological variants in Wire and Arc Additive Manufacturing (WAAM) of advanced engineering alloys to control defect formation and microstructure. Special emphasis was given to a hot forging WAAM, recently developed by his current research team. His presentation was not recorded upon his request.
Dr. Akira Otsuki then presented his research in metal recovery for sustainable resource utilization, including the sustainable beneficiation of complex primary and secondary raw materials (fluorescent powders and printed circuit board).
After each speaker presentation, a Q&A session moderated by the conference chair was held to answer all questions submitted by live online audience.
Speaker: Prof. Dr. João Pedro Oliveira
Prof. Dr. João Pedro Oliveira is an Assistant Professor at the Department of Mechanical and Industrial Engineering at Faculdade de Ciências e Tecnologia, Universidade NOVA de Lisboa. So far, he has published more than 75 peer-reviewed papers and has a Scopus h-index of 23. He has also presented several oral communications and posters at international conferences. He currently supervises four PhD students and co-supervises another three. He has led multiple industrial and fundamental research projects in the areas of welding and joining. In total he has been granted up to around €800,000 in research projects. His research activities and participation in seminar and training schools allowed him to acquire competences in several characterization techniques such as SEM, TEM, X-ray diffraction using both conventional and synchrotron radiation sources, thermal analysis, and mechanical testing, among others. His research interests include weldability and the correlation between the microstructure and mechanical behavior of different classes of materials, such as shape memory alloys, Co-based superalloys, high-entropy alloys, and stainless steels. Additionally, João has a special interest in additive manufacturing techniques.
Speaker: Dr. Akira Otsuki
Dr. Akira Otsuki is a faculty member of ENSG, GeoRessources Laboratory, University of Lorraine (FR), a guest professor in non-destructive characterization and selective material recovery at Lulea University of Technology (SE), and a visiting researcher in Neutron Beam Technology Team at RIKEN (JP). He received his PhD in 2007 in Geosystem Engineering from The University of Tokyo, Japan. He is a member of several academic societies, including Int. Waste Working Group. He has been acting as journal editors and also organizing journal special issues relevant to nondestructive characterization/testing and selective material recovery, including “Advances in Characterization of Heterogeneous Metals/Alloys”. Dr. Otsuki’s research is specialized in the area of characterization and processing of complex materials which include colloids, waste materials, and natural ores. He has extensive exchange programs with different research and academic institutions around the world and is performing world class collaborative research in characterization and processing.
Instructions for Authors
- Scholars interested in participating in the conference can submit their abstract (about 200–300 words) online on this website until 7 January 2021.
- The Conference Committee will notify authors of the acceptance of their abstract by 17 January 2021.
- In case of acceptance, authors will be asked to submit their manuscript, along with a presentation and optionally a video presentation of his/her paper (only PDF), until the submission deadline of 7 February 2021.
- The manuscripts and presentations will be available on https://sciforum.net/conference/IEC2M for discussion and rating during the time of the conference from 22 February-7 March 2021.
- The open access journal Metals will publish a Special Issue of the conference proceedings papers (https://www.mdpi.com/journal/metals/special_issues/iec2m2021).
- All accepted extended abstracts will be published as one dedicated volume in MDPI Materials Proceedings series journals (ISSN 2673-4605, https://www.mdpi.com/journal/materproc).
- After the conference, the Conference Committee will recommend manuscripts that may be included for publication in this Special Issue.
Manuscripts for the proceedings issue must have the following organization:
- Full author names
- Affiliations (including full postal address) and authors' e-mail addresses
- Results and Discussion
Manuscripts should be prepared in MS Word or any other word processor and should be converted to PDF format before submission. The publication format will be PDF. The manuscript should be at least three pages (incl. figures, tables, and references). There is no page limit on the length, although authors are asked to keep their papers as concise as possible.
Authors are encouraged to prepare a presentation in PowerPoint or similar software, to be displayed online along with the manuscript. Slides, if available, will be displayed directly on the website using the https://sciforum.net/conference/IEC2M proprietary slide viewer. Slides can be prepared in the same way as for any traditional conference where research results are presented. Slides should be converted to PDF format before submission so that our process can easily and automatically convert them for online display.
Besides their active participation within the forum, authors are also encouraged to submit video presentations. If you are interested in submitting a video presentation, please contact the conference organizer at [email protected] to find out more about the procedure. This is a unique way of presenting your paper and discussing it with peers from all over the world. Make a difference and join us for this project!
Authors that wish to present a poster only, i.e., without a proceedings paper, can do so in section I. Posters of this conference. Posters will be available on this conference website during and after the event. Like papers presented at the conference, participants will be able to ask questions and make comments about the posters. Posters that are submitted without a paper will not be included in the proceedings of the conference.
Submission: Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.sciforum.net/login by registering and logging in.
Accepted File Formats
- MS Word: Manuscripts prepared in MS Word must be converted into a single file before submission. When preparing manuscripts in MS Word, the Electronic Conference on Surfaces, Coatings, and Interfaces Microsoft Word template file (see download below) must be used. Please do not insert any graphics (schemes, figures, etc.) into a movable frame which can superimpose the text and make the layout very difficult。
- LaTeX: Manuscripts prepared in LaTeX must be collated into one ZIP folder (include all source files and images, so that the Conference Secretariat can recompile the submitted PDF). When preparing manuscripts in LaTeX, please use the 6th Electronic Conference on Sensors and Applications LaTeX template files.
For Microsoft Word template file, please click here.
For LaTex template file, please click here.
Paper Format: A4 paper format, the printing area is 17.5 cm × 26.2 cm. The margins should be 1.75 cm on each side of the paper (top, bottom, left, and right sides).
- Formatting/Style: Papers should be prepared following the style of Metals. The full titles and the cited papers must be given. Reference numbers should be placed in square brackets [ ], and placed before the punctuation; for example, [1,2], , or [1–3], and all the references should be listed separately and as the last section at the end of the manuscript.
- Author List and Affiliation Format: Authors' full first and last names must be given. Abbreviated middle names can be added. For papers written by various contributors, a corresponding author must be designated. The PubMed/MEDLINE format is used for affiliations: complete street address information including city, zip code, state/province, country, and email address should be added. All authors who contributed significantly to the manuscript (including writing a section) should be listed on the first page of the manuscript, below the title of the article. Other parties, who provided only minor contributions, should be listed under Acknowledgments only. A minor contribution might be a discussion with the author, reading through the draft of the manuscript, or performing English corrections.
- Figures, Schemes, and Tables: Authors are encouraged to prepare figures and schemes in color. Full color graphics will be published free of charge. Figures and schemes must be numbered (Figure 1, Scheme I, Figure 2, Scheme II, etc.) and an explanatory title must be added. Tables should be inserted into the main text, and numbers and titles for all tables supplied. All table columns should have an explanatory heading. Please supply legends for all figures, schemes, and tables. The legends should be prepared as a separate paragraph of the main text and placed in the main text before a table, figure, or scheme.
For further inquiries please contact us at [email protected]
It is the authors' responsibility to identify and declare any personal circumstances or interests that may be perceived as inappropriately influencing the representation or interpretation of clinical research. If there is no conflict, please state here "The authors declare no conflict of interest." This should be conveyed in a separate "Conflict of Interest" statement preceding the "Acknowledgments" and "References" sections at the end of the manuscript. Financial support for the study must be fully disclosed under the "Acknowledgments" section.
MDPI, the publisher of the Sciforum.net platform, is an open access publisher. We believe that authors should retain the copyright to their scholarly works. Hence, by submitting a Communication paper to this conference, you retain the copyright of your paper, but you grant MDPI the non-exclusive right to publish this paper online on the Sciforum.net platform. This means you can easily submit your paper to any scientific journal at a later stage and transfer the copyright to its publisher (if required by that publisher).
List of accepted submissions (31)
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Aluminum foams as permanent cores in casting
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Submitted: 17 Dec 2020
Abstract: Show Abstract
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Low density, high specific stiffness and impact energy/vibration absorption ability make Al-based metal foams as promising materials in application for which lightweight, and energy/vibration absorption are crucial. The scientific literature documents an increasing interest in this topic (published papers rise from 100/year to 600/year in the last 20 years) and also industrial applications are emerging. In this context Al-based foams can be extremely interesting as cores in cast components in order to improve their properties and simplify their technological processes (no removal/recycling of traditional sand cores). However, both in the scientific literature and in technological application, this topic is still poorly explored (few paper/year, less than 10 patents). The published works include few details and characterizations and almost no solutions are discussed for the overcoming of criticism. In this context the present research considers and compare different foams, analyze both the foams and the cast objects, individuates main issues and proposes new strategies for their overcoming.
In the present work,Al-based metal foams, (Cymat foams and Havel Metal Foams in the form of bars of rectangular section), are inserted in gravity casting experiment of the Al-Si-Cu-Mg alloy. The foams have been fully characterized before and after insertion in casting: (porosity, cell wall and external skin thickness, microstructure, infiltration degree and the quality of the interface between the foam core and the dense cast shell have been investigated by means of optical microscopy and Scanning Electron Microscopy equipped with Energy Dispersive Spectroscopy (SEM-EDS)).
The analyses evidenced that a continuous and thick external skin protect the foam from infiltration by molten metal preserving the initial porosity and insert shape. A detailed analysis of the foam external skin (absent in the published literature) highlight that the composition of this external skin is crucial for the obtainment of a good joining between the molten metal and the Al-foam core. In fact, the presence of Mg-oxides on the foam surface prevent the bonding and maintain a gap between the core and the shell. This point opens the opportunity to design innovative surface modifications of this external skin as promising strategies for the optimization of cast component with a foam core.
Bubble Behavior on Horizontal and Vertical Carbon Anode Surfaces in Cryolite Melt Applying a See-Through Cell
Submitted: 10 Dec 2020
Abstract: Show Abstract
Gas bubble behavior on a carbon anode in a cryolite melt have been studied by direct observation using a see-through cell. The bubble phenomena studied have been growth, coalescence and detachment during electrolysis. The anode geometry and surface orientation affect bubbles behavior. Therefore, two different anodes were tested, an anode with a horizontal facing-downwards surface and an anode with a vertical surface. Galvanostatic and potentiostatic measurements were performed for different current densities and different potentials with simultaneous video recording. At the horizontal anode for a constant current density/potential it was found that one large bubble was formed by growth and coalescence of smaller bubbles and finally the large bubble detached periodically. The frequency of the bubble release events observed from the video recordings was in agreement with the dominant frequency from the Fast Fourier Transform (FFT) analysis. For the vertical anode surface smaller bubbles were formed and detached either due to being pushed by the formation of other bubbles or by coalescence obtaining enough buoyancy. FFT analysis gave no dominant frequency. The diameter of detached bubbles from the horizontal surface and vertical surface was measured. The value was in a range 5.7 mm to 7.2 mm for the horizontal surface and in a range 1.5 mm to 3.7 mm for the vertical surface, strongly depending on the applied current density. The bubble diameter was decreasing with increasing current density for both surfaces. The smaller bubble diameter might be explained by a larger bubble induced convection and increased wetting.
DETERMINATION OF THE REACTION RATE CONTROLLING RESISTANCE OF GOETHITE IRON ORE REDUCTION USING CO/CO2 GASES FROM WOOD CHARCOAL
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Submitted: 22 Jan 2021
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The quest for suitable reductants for the extraction of iron from ores at minimal energy requirements and maximum degree of metallization is attracting growing researchers’ attention. In the present work, an attempt is made to use non-contact charcoal in the reduction of run-off mine goethite ore at heating temperatures above 570oC. The reduction mechanism adopted is in accordance with Levenspiel’s relations for the shrinking core model. The first stage is concerned with the diffusion of gaseous reactant through the film surrounding the particle to the surface of the solid where Goethite hematite is reduced by CO from wood charcoal to magnetite (3Fe2O3 + CO → 2Fe2O3 + CO2). The second stage involves the penetration of a gaseous reactant through the blanket of ash to the surface of the unreacted core where magnetite is reduced to wustite (Fe3O4 + CO → 3FeO + CO2). The final stage is the reaction of the gaseous reactant with solid at the reaction surface, which is described by the stoichiometry equation where the product consists of fluid and solid (FeO + CO → Fe + CO2). This non-contact charcoal reduction approach is adopted to maximize the benefit of using CO/CO2 gases from charcoal for reduction without the need for beneficiation and concentration. The rate-controlling steps for the reduction kinetics of average particle size 5, 10, 15, and 20 mm at 570, 700, 800, 900, and 1000oC are studied after heat treatment of the ore-wood charcoal in activated carbon reactor at total reduction time of 40 minutes based on literature. Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) and Energy Dispersive X-ray (EDX) analysis are done to investigate the spectrometric phase change and metallic components of the ore sample after reduction, respectively. The average percentage metallic iron content of 56.6, 60.8, and 61.7% and degree of metallization of 91.62, 75.96, and 93.6% are achieved from the SEM/EDX analysis of the reduced ore sample at reduction temperature of 570, 800 and 1000oC, respectively. The sharp drop in the degree of metallization of the reduced ore samples is observed at intermediate temperatures 700, 800, 900oC of the reduction. This indicates the tendency of high carbon deposit at the wustite stage of the reduction process at the least temperature and residence time of 5700C and 10 minutes, respectively. This study demonstrates that diffusion through the ash layer is the controlling resistance of the overall reduction process.
Defect reduction through modelling plastic deformation and metallurgical evolution in ferritic stainless steels.
Submitted: 17 Dec 2020
Abstract: Show Abstract
Flat products made of EN 1.4512 ferritic steel may present some defects after the hot rolling process, such as irregular jagged edges. In order to identify the origin of this type of defect to help their reduction, a study has been carried out considering the hot rolling conditions of flat bars made of EN 1.4512 steel. Many semi-empirical models regarding the microstructural evolution during hot deformation of austenitic stainless steels have been developed by many authors. On the contrary, no many studies have been performed about ferritic stainless steels. The main novelty of this work is in the development of a recrystallization and grain growth model applied to EN 1.4512 ferritic steel grade. The microstructural evolution of the ferritic grain size and the damage of the material were calculated through the coupling of metallurgical and damage models. In the thermomechanical simulations of the roughing passes, three granulometry levels (PFGS) and three heating furnace temperatures were considered. The ferritic grain evolution metallurgical model was obtained introducing adequate equations. The results show that the defect can be produced by process conditions that trigger abnormal heating which induces an uncontrolled growth of the grain on the edges. The work-hardened grains undergo elongation during hot deformation but are not able to recrystallize. Consequently, these grains “squeezes” the surrounding recrystallized matrix towards the edges of the bar. Thus, on the edges occurs fractures that macroscopically manifest themselves as jagged edges.
Derivation of appropriate conditions for Additive Manufacturing technology using hot-wire laser method
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Submitted: 08 Dec 2020
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The aim of this research was to develop a high-efficiency and high-material-utilization additive manufacturing technology using the hot-wire laser method. In this study, the optimization of process conditions using a combination of a high-power diode laser with a relatively large laser spot hot-wire system was investigated. The effects of welding parameters such as the laser power, process speed, and wire feeding rate (wire feeding speed/process speed) on the bead appearance evaluation and the cross-sectional characteristics ( e.g. effective width, effective height, maximum height, and near net shape rate) were studied in detail. The process phenomena of the three-layer and multi-layer deposition were investigated by in-situ observation via a high-speed camera. Energy density input and wire feeding rate were found to be dominant parameters influencing both the stability of phenomena and bead appearance. With the increase of process speed, the effective width decreases, the effective height, maximum height, and the near net shape rate increases. Additionally, all measured values of the wire feeding rate of 30 improve compared with the values of the wire feeding rate of 20. The near net shape rate increased and the effective width over 10mm of three-layer deposition for the laser spot width of 11 mm was obtained with suitable process parameters. The defect-free 15-layer wall modeling of more than 50 mm in height, 8 mm in width, and 250 mm in length was obtained with high efficiency using the optimum conditions by the hot-wire laser method.
We are pleased to announce that the IEC2M Best Paper Award and Best Poster Award were granted to :
|Best paper award 500 CHF||Best poster award 500 CHF|
Fuyao Yan, Jiayi Yan and David Linder
Kurniawan Kurniawan, Jae-chun Lee, Jonghyun Kim, Rina Kim and Sookyung Kim
The Best Paper Award is given for the paper judged to make the most significant contribution to the conference.
The Best Poster Award has been established to recognize the scientific merit exhibited in poster presentation and preparation.
Professor Eric Hullebusch, Université de Paris / Institut de physique du globe de Paris
B. Powder Metallurgy
Professor José Manuel Torralba, Universidad Carlos III de Madrid, Spain
Professor Andreas Chrysanthou, University of Hertfordshire, UK
Professor Mónica Campos Gómez, Universidad Carlos III de Madrid, Spain
C. Corrosion and Protection
Professor Belén Díaz Fernández, University of Vigo, Spain
E. Metal Forming
Professor João Pedro Oliveira, Universidade Nova de Lisboa, Portugal
F. Additive Manufacturing
Dr. Alex Lanzutti, Università degli Studi di Udine, Italy
H. Metal Recycling
Dr. Jae-chun Lee, Korea Institute of Geoscience and Mineral Resources (KIGAM) and Korea University of Science and Technology (KUST), Korea